Glossary

Access ConditionsData licenses can specify who can be an end-user. A well-governed archival repository has mechanisms in place to administer and implement such conditions.
ADAAustralian Data Archive. A national service for the collection and preservation of digital research data.
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ADM+SARC Centre of Excellence for Automated Decision-Making and Society. It brings together universities, industry, government and the community to support the development of responsible, ethical and inclusive automated decision-making.
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ADOAustralian Digital Observatory. An ARDC platform working to establish a national infrastructure to support a diverse array of researchers, especially in the humanities, in accessing and working with dynamic digital data.
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AIATSISAustralian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Australia’s only national institution focused exclusively on the diverse history, culture and heritage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Australia, with a growing collection of over one million items, dedicated to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, histories and contemporary stories.
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APIApplication Programming Interface. A way for computer programs to communicate with each other. It is a way for one computer or system to ask another computer or system to do something, like provide a dataset.
ARCAustralian Research Council. Its purpose is to grow knowledge and innovation for the benefit of the Australian community through funding the highest quality research, assessing the quality, engagement and impact of research, and providing advice on research matters.
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Archival RepositoryA location for the storage of data that has an appropriate governance regime in place.
ARDCAustralian Research Data Commons. The ARDC is Australia’s leading research data infrastructure facility accelerating Australian research and innovation by driving excellence in the creation, analysis and retention of high-quality data assets.
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ARDSAboriginal Resource and Development Services (ARDS Aboriginal Corporation). Its work champions the importance of language and culture in developing self-determination for Aboriginal people, and supports Aboriginal communities to increase control and understanding of mainstream services and systems.
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ArkistoA scalable, standards-based platform for sustainable data. Data on an Arkisto deployment is always available on disc (or object storage) with a complete description independently of any services such as websites or APIs. Once the data is safe and well-described, Arkisto has a flexible model for how data can be accessed using a variety of services. Built on top of RO-Crate and OCFL.
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See also: Oxford Common File Layout
See also: RO-Crate
ASRAutomatic Speech Recognition. ASR enables computers to process human spoken language into readable text, allowing users to operate devices through speech or facilitate translation of that speech into other languages.
ATAPAustralian Text Analytics Platform. An open source environment that provides researchers with tools and training for analysing, processing and exploring text.
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AustLangProvides a controlled vocabulary of persistent identifiers, a thesaurus of languages and peoples, and information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages which has been assembled from referenced sources. Alphanumeric codes are used as persistent identifiers, while associated text strings are changeable and can reflect community preferences (including alternative names and spellings). In AustLang, Warlpiri has two codes: C15 for the language in general, and C15.1 for the variety named as Wakirti Warlpiri.
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BIBatchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. The only First Nations dual sector tertiary education provider in Australia. The Institute gives precedence to its philosophy of Both Ways: positioning First Nations peoples as knowledge holders in all educational transactions with Western knowledge systems as well as privileging First Nations ways of learning and teaching to underpin engagement with mainstream education systems and society more broadly.
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BinderHubA Kubernetes-based cloud service that allows users to share reproducible interactive computing environments from code repositories. It is the primary technology behind Binder.
ATAP notebooks are made available using a Binder instance maintained by AARNet/Nectar.
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CADRECoordinated Access for Data, Researchers and Environments. A shared and distributed sensitive data access management platform for the social sciences and related disciplines.
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CARE

Four principles developed by the Global Indigenous Data Alliance (GIDA) to ensure that Indigenous communities have control over the application and use of Indigenous data and Indigenous Knowledge for collective benefit.
The principles specify four aspects of the respectful use of data:

  • Collective Benefit
  • Authority to Control
  • Responsibility
  • Ethics

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CDLCommunity Data Lab. CDL shares tools and datasets for collaborative HASS research projects that use data from archives, libraries and collections.
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CDUCharles Darwin University.
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CMDIComponent Metadata Infrastructure. Provides a standard for metadata within CLARIN. It draws on the earlier ISLE Metadata Initiative (IMDI), but CMDI adopts a more flexible approach where components are assembled into reusable profiles.
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CollectionA group of related Objects. Examples of collections include corpora, and sub-corpora, as well as aggregations of cultural objects such as PARADISEC collections, which bring together items collected in a region or a session with consultants.
ConfidentialityThe obligation to protect identity and privacy as recognised under Australian Law in the Privacy Act 1988.
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CopyrightThe legal right of the owner of intellectual property. In simpler terms, copyright is the right to copy. This means that the original creators of products and anyone they give authorisation to are the only ones with the exclusive right to reproduce the work.
Copyright OwnerThe creator of the work, and the person/institution who has the exclusive right to reproduce, publish, perform, communicate, and adapt or modify the work, for both commercial and non-commercial purposes. The copyright owner may be the same as the Data Steward.
Crate-OA browser-based editor that allows you to create and update RO-Crates using a web interface, and with metadata spreadsheets. It provides researchers with a relatively simple way to describe their data using the best practices in formal metadata description.
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Creative Commons LicensesA set of licenses that allow for data reusability under specified conditions regarding attribution, data sharing, commercialisation and data adaptation.
Data CollectionA set of data collected under similar conditions and brought together in a shared framework.
Data Commons

Cloud-based infrastructure coupled with governance strategies and principles that allow a community to use, share, manage and analyse its data.

LDaCA is a language data commons serving researchers and community groups that are interested in language data.

Data GovernanceThe policies and processes by which data is managed through its life cycle to ensure the quality, reliability, security, and sustainability of the data.
Data LicenseA legal arrangement between the creator of the data and the end-user specifying what users can do with the data.
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Data Management PlanA document that (1) outlines key information about a research project and its data, including the access conditions and ownership, storage, and future use and (2) sets out roles and responsibilities in its management.
Data OnboardingThe process by which language collections are catalogued in LDaCA, carried out collaboratively by the Data Steward and LDaCA.
Data PackagingThe application of widely used standards, for example, in terms of formats, metadata , and access conditions, to the collection data.
See also: Data Transformation
Data StewardAn individual or organisation with the authority to make decisions regarding the collection.
Data TransformationThe process of converting, cleansing, and structuring data into a usable format. Sometimes used as a synonym for Data Packaging.
See also: Data Packaging
Describo

A tool that allows you to create and update RO-Crates. It provides researchers with a relatively simple way to describe their data using the best practices in formal metadata description.

Superseded for project purposes by Crate-O.

DOIDigital Object Identifier. A type of Persistent Identifier (PID) which is becoming the default identifier for research datasets, as a long-lasting reference to the collection. It comprises a unique number made up of a prefix and a suffix separated by a forward slash, resolvable by displaying it as a link, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1000/182
ElpisA tool to obtain a first-pass transcription of untranscribed audio. It brings cutting-edge speech recognition technology within reach of language workers and researchers who don’t have backgrounds in speech engineering.
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FAIR

Four key principles developed in 2016 with the aim of supporting the discovery and reuse of research data.

The principles encourage us to make data:

  • Findable
  • Accessible
  • Interoperable
  • Reusable

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FLAFirst Languages Australia. A national organisation working to ensure the strength of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.
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GitHubA developer platform that allows developers to create, store, manage and share their code, using Git software.
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GLAMGalleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums.
GLAM PeakA representative national body that brings together the representative bodies for Australia’s galleries, libraries, archives, museums, historical societies, cultural heritage organisations and research peak bodies.
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GLAM WorkbenchA suite of Jupyter notebooks developed by Tim Sherratt to help with exploring and using data from GLAM institutions. Primarily, the notebooks use data from Trove newspaper and magazine collections, but have some extensions beyond this.
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GlottologAn alternative catalogue of the world’s languages, language families and dialects - Glottolog uses the term languoid to cover all of these. Each languoid is assigned a unique identifier consisting of four alphanumeric characters and four digits. For example, (standard) French has the code stan1290, and Warlpiri is warl1254.
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HASSHumanities, Arts and Social Sciences.
HMIHuman Machine Interface. A user interface that connects a person to a machine, system or device. For example, in-car HMIs allow drivers to interact with their vehicle.
IADInstitute for Aboriginal Development (Aboriginal Corporation). An Aboriginal community-controlled organisation established as a cross-cultural adult education and training centre serving all Aboriginal people in Central Australia.
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IDNIndigenous Data Network. A national network of Aboriginal community-controlled organisations, university research partners, Indigenous businesses and government agencies and departments established to support and coordinate the governance of Indigenous data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and empower Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to decide their own local data priorities.
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IIRCImproving Indigenous Research Capability. A project supporting the creation of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research Data Commons.
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Intellectual PropertyCreative works protected by law via patents, copyright and trademarks.
IPAInternational Phonetic Alphabet. An alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script, designed as a standardised representation of speech sounds in written form.
ISO-639A standard by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) concerned with representation of languages and language groups. An earlier version of this system used two-letter codes to identify languages; more recent versions use three-letter codes (referred to as ISO 639-3). The ISO 639-3 code for French is fra, and Warlpiri is wbp.
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JSONJavaScript Object Notation. A data-interchange text format that is completely language independent but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C-family of languages.
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Jupyter NotebookInteractive computational environments, in which you can combine code execution, rich text, mathematics, plots and rich media.
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LADALLanguage Technology and Data Analysis Laboratory. A free, open-source, collaborative support infrastructure for digital and computational humanities assisting anyone interested in working with language data in matters relating to data processing, visualization and analysis, and offering guidance on matters relating to language technology and digital research tools.
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LDaCALanguage Data Commons of Australia. LDaCA is pronounced el-dakka and is making nationally significant language data available for academic and non-academic use and providing a model for ensuring continued access with appropriate community control.
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LicensingA process that allows the copyright owner to share the right to access and use the data without reassigning the ownership of the copyright of the work. A license for a data collection establishes the conditions for who can access, share and reuse the data and other conditions as required.
MetadataThe information that defines and describes data. It provides data users with information about the purpose, processes, and methods involved in the data collection. (Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics).
MTMachine Translation.
NCRISNational Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy. It provides strategic funding for national-scale research infrastructure, driving collaboration to bring economic, environmental, health and social benefits for Australia.
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NERNamed-Entity Recognition. NER locates and classifies named entities in unstructured text into predefined categories such as person names, organisations and locations.
NFSANational Film and Sound Archive. Australia’s national audiovisual cultural institution which collects, preserves and shares Australia’s audiovisual culture.
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NyingarnA 3-year Australian Research Council funded project that will provide digital access to early sources of Australia’s Indigenous languages, using various ways to turn images of manuscripts into text, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and crowdsourced transcription (using DigiVol).
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ObjectA single resource or a group of tightly related resources that record a communicative event; for example, a dialogue or session in a speech study, a work (document) in a written corpus.
OCFLOxford Common File Layout. An application-independent approach to the storage of digital information in a structured, transparent, and predictable manner. It is designed to promote long-term object management best practices within digital repositories.
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OCROptical Character Recognition. The electronic or mechanical conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text.
OLACOpen Language Archives Community. An international partnership of institutions and individuals who are creating a worldwide virtual library of language resources by (i) developing consensus on best current practice for the digital archiving of language resources, and (ii) developing a network of interoperating repositories and services for housing and accessing such resources.
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OniA portal for discovery of RO-Crated data. It is a web application which provides indexing, searching and access to secure data repositories which follow the Arkisto model.
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Orthographic TranscriptionA transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language.
PARADISECPacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures. A digital archive that works to digitise, preserve and make accessible recordings that are at risk of loss; particularly for languages in the Pacific region.
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Phonetic TranscriptionThe process of transcribing words in a lexicon according to their sound through the use of a phonetic alphabet such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) or X-SAMPA.
PIDPersistent Identifier. A digital identifier that is permanently assigned and provides a long-lasting reference to an object or entity, for example a Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
ProvenanceThe documented history or chain of custody of materials from their creation to their current location within a collection. The full history and ownership of an item from the time of its discovery or creation to the present day, through which authenticity and ownership are determined.
PythonA high-level, general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on code readability.
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QUTQueensland University of Technology.
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RA programming language and environment for statistical computing and graphics.
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RDCResearch Data Commons.
See also: ARDC
REMSResource Entitlement Management System. A tool to help researchers browse resources such as datasets relevant to their research and to manage the application process for access to those resources.
RIIPResearch Infrastructure Investment Plan (NCRIS). It provides continued support for Australia’s National Research Infrastructure facilities, as well as investment in emerging research priorities.
RO-CrateResearch Object Crate. A way of packaging research data that stores the data together with its associated metadata and other component files, such as the data license.
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Sensitive Data

Data that, as a result of research, contains confidential or other ‘sensitive information’ which is defined in the Privacy Act as information or opinion about an individual’s:

  • racial or ethnic origin
  • political opinions
  • membership of a political association
  • religious beliefs or affiliations
  • philosophical beliefs
  • membership of a professional or trade association
  • membership of a trade union
  • sexual preferences or practices
  • criminal record
  • health information
  • genetic information
  • culturally sensitive data or data deemed sensitive by the data provider

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Takedown PolicyThe policy according to which data may be removed, or access may be adjusted in some way, and the steps by which this is implemented.
TK LabelsTraditional Knowledge Labels. An initiative for Indigenous communities and local organisations, allowing communities to express local and specific conditions for sharing and engaging in future research and relationships in ways that are consistent with already existing community rules, governance and protocols for using, sharing and circulating knowledge and data.
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ToolsCode or software developed in order to support or enhance language data accessibility and use.
TTSText-to-Speech. TTS generates an artificial spoken audio version of a written text and can be used to improve accessibility.
UoMThe University of Melbourne.
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UQThe University of Queensland.
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USCUniversity of the Sunshine Coast.
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USydThe University of Sydney.
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UWAThe University of Western Australia.
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VoIPVoice over Internet Protocol. A technology allowing phone calls to be made through the Internet using a broadband connection, rather than through a landline or mobile network.
Wangka MayaWangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. It aims to be recognised as a leading Aboriginal language and resource centre in Australia, using expertise, knowledge and sensitivity to record and foster Aboriginal languages, culture and history.
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Work PlanAn agreement between LDaCA and the Data Steward establishing the terms according to which the data will be onboarded to LDaCA, including the goals and responsibilities of each party, and the steps and timeline for carrying out the onboarding process.
WPWork package within a funded project.
X-SAMPAExtended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet. A phonetic script designed to extend SAMPA to cover the range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
XMLExtensible Markup Language. A markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing data.
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ZenodoA multi-disciplinary open data repository maintained by CERN.
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